Sabtu, 28 Desember 2013

Logical Division


Logical division of ideas is a form of essay organization that is used to group related items according to some quality they have in common. Logical division can be useful in planning an academic paper because it will help you divide a broad subject into several categories or groups and in that way focus the topics for discussion. Then each subtopic can be discussed in order.
For instance, as an engineer, you might write a paper in which you classify the various options available to students in the field of engineering. You might divide the' main field in the following subclasses: civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering. space engineering, and electronic engineering. By dividing the field into subclasses, you can discuss each one separately, which simplifies the task of explaining such a broad subject. Then study the model essay. Which discusses some of the influences of Native Americans on modern American culture. Notice that the same techniques used for logical division paragraphs can also be used for whole essays. 


Native American Influences on Modern American Culture

When the first Europeans came to the North American continent. they encountered the completely new cultures of the Native American peoples of North America. Native Americans, who had highly developed cultures in many respects. must have been as curious about the strange European manners and customs as the
Europeans were curious about them. As always happens when two or more cultures come into contact. there was a cultural exchange. Native Americans adopted" some of the Europeans' ways. and the Europeans adopted some of their ways. As a result. Native Americans have made many valuable contributions to American culture. particularly in the areas of language. art, food. and government.
Native Americans left a permanent imprint on the English language. The early English speaking settlers borrowed from several different Native American languages words for the new places and new objects that they had found in this new land. All across the country. one can find cities. towns. rivers. and states ,with Native American names. For example. the states of Delaware. Iowa. Illinois. And Alabama are named after Native American tribes as are the cities of Chicago. Miami. and Spokane. In addition to place names. English adopted from various Native American languages the words for animals and plants that were to be found only in the Americas and no place else. Chipmunk. moose. raccoon. skunk. tobacco. and potato are just a few examples.
    Although the vocabulary of English is the area that shows the most Native American            influence. it is not the only area of American culture that was shaped by contact with Native Americans. Art is another area of important Native American contributions. Wool rugs woven by women of the Navajo tribe in Arizona and New Mexico are highly valued works of art in the United States. Also, Native American jewelry made from silver and turquoise is very popular and very expensive. Especially in the western and south western regions of the United States. native crafts such as pottery, handcrafted leather product, and bead work can be found in many homes. Indeed. native art and handicrafts are a treasured part of American culture.
In addition to language and art, agriculture is another area in which Native Americans had a great and lasting influence on the peoples who arrived here from Europe. Africa. and Asia. Being skilled farmers. the Native Americans of North America taught the newcomers many things about farming techniques and crops. Every American schoolchild has heard the story of how Native Americans taught the first settlers to place a dead fish in a planting hole to provide fertilizer for the
     Grown plant. Furthermore. they taught the settlers irrigation methods and crop rotation. In addition. many of the foods Americans eat today were introduced to the Europeans by Native Americans. For example. potatoes. Chocolate and peanuts were unknown in Europe. Now they are staples in the American diet.
Finally. it may surprise some people to learn that Americans are also indebted' to the native people for our form of government. The Iroquois. who were an extremely large tribe with many branches called "nations," had developed a highly sophisticated2 system of government to settle disputes that arose between the various branches. Five of the nations had joined together in a confederation called "The League of the Iroquois." Under the League, each nation was autonomous' in running its own internal affairs. but the nations acted as a unit when dealing with outsiders. The League kept the Iroquois from fighting among themselves and was also valuable in diplomatic relations with other tribes. When the thirteen American colonies were considering what kind of government to establish after they won their independence from Britain. someone suggested that they use a system similar to that of the League of the Iroquois. Under this system. each colony or future state would be autonomous in managing its own affairs but would join forces with the other states to deal with matters that concerned them all. This is exactly what happened. As a result. the present form of government of the United States can be traced directly back to a Native American model.
In conclusion. we can easily see from these few examples the extent of Native American       influence on our language. our art forms. our eating habits. and our government. Modern Americans are deeply indebted to Native Americans for their contributions to United States culture.


A logical division essay is organized just like a logical division paragraph. a large topic is divided up into smaller subtopics, each of which can be discussed in a separate paragraph. The introductory paragraph introduces the main topic, and the thesis statement may give the number of subtopics, or it may name them. Each body paragraph discusses one subtopic. The concluding paragraph brings the essay to a close by reminding the reader of the essay's main points.
Transition Signals and Thesis Statements
Transition signals are the same for logical division paragraphs and logical division essays. and thesis statements for logical division essays are similar to topic sentences for logical division paragraphs. A thesis statement may name the subtopics or simply indicate that there are a certain number of subtopics, as in these examples:
Subtopics not named: A college education is a necessity in today's competitive world for two main reasons. Subtopics named: A college education is a necessity in today's competitive world not only because of the knowledge you gain but also because of the social contacts you make.
A. Outlining 'Working alone or in a group. make an outline of the model essay about Native American influences on American culture. Follow the model outline on pages 108-109. If you work in a group, assign one paragraph to each student to outline. When you are finished, combine all of the group's outlines on one paper.
B. Transition Signals Circle the transition signals in the model essay.
C. Transitions between Paragraphs Copy the words, phrases, and clauses that serve as links between the six paragraphs.
Between 1 and 2:
Between 2 and 3:
Between 3 and 4:                                                 
Between 4 and 5:
Between 5 and 6:
Alternate Topic Suggestions
Kinds of students. teachers. shoppers.
The various career options that are
automobile drivers, etc.
available to graduates in your field of
The various submajors in your major
study
Breeds of dogs (or cats)

Clothing styles among your peers





           

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